With the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s, bed bugs mostly disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century .Infestations remained common in many other parts of the world and in recent years have also begun to rebound in North America. Thanks to rises in rampant hoarding around the United States,[clarification needed] bed bugs are able to hide and reproduce without immediate detection. Reappearance of bed bugs has presented new challenges for pest control due to their developed resistance to various pesticides including DDT, and organophosphates. In fact, using DDT on today's bed bug makes it more active.
Another reason for their increase is that more pest control services use gel-based pesticide baits for control of cockroaches and ants, the most common pests in structures, instead of residual sprays. When residual sprays were used to kill the more common insect pests, they resulted in the collateral control of bed bug populations. The gel-based insecticides primarily used today to control cockroach and ant populations do not have any effect on bed bugs, as bed bugs are not attracted to baits.
Available in the market are several pesticides to control bed bugs. The list of pesticides for the purpose can be a long one, and you may easily access them or buy them in the market. But professional help from pest control operators are necessary because small failures and mistakes in applying pesticides to control bed bugs may cause more serious problems. The list of pesticides to control bed bugs is ever growing. Every year a handful of additional insecticides make the list longer. This acknowledges how people are concerned with the increasing annoyance and discomfort from having bed bugs at home.
One theory is that the source of current bed bug populations is from other countries without bed bug pesticides that have made their way through air travel, and another theory is that the surviving bed bug populations were forced to switch hosts to birds such as poultry, and bats.
The most common pesticides and insecticides, from the long list of available ones in the market, for controlling bedbugs usually are classified as:
1. Contact insecticides. These substances have their own long list. Most bed bugs pesticides contain a number of contact insecticides that have the ability to kill bed bugs instantly when they come or get into direct contact with surfaces with the pesticide or its residues.
2. Contact insecticides are normally made up of pyrethoids, which are formulated synthetically or from natural extracts from chrysanthemum flowers. These substances tend to emit smell that instantly knocks out bed bugs. However, bed bugs may develop repelling properties or characteristics against the substance. Hence, using contact insecticides may not mean killing bed bugs, but preventing them from getting into surfaces applied with the pesticide.
3. Insect growth regulators or IGR. These insecticide is also common among the long list of pesticides for controlling bed bugs. The pesticide does not directly target adult or crawling bed bugs. The pesticide’s attack on bedbugs is based on the principle that the youngsters are more vulnerable. IGRs affect and directly exterminate eggs or bed bugs that have just hatched. The eggs’ and the young bed bugs’s development are hindered and stalled, thus, no new generation of bed bugs will follow the current one. IGR application is not a quick way to control bed bugs. From among the other pesticides in the currently existing list, IGR is the slowest, or the insecticide that will have results in the longest time.
List of pesticides that control bed bugs
The list of pesticides to control bed bugs is ever growing. Every year a handful of additional insecticides make the list longer. This acknowledges how people are concerned with the increasing annoyance and discomfort from having bed bugs at home. The most common pesticides available in the market are: Pyrethrins, Tempo, Allethrin, Delta Dust Flee/ Dragnet, Malathion, Drione Dust and Suspend SC. The list is very incomplete, but the above mentioned are the most common and easily purchasable in the market today. The short listed pesticides are commonly sprayed into areas suspected of being habitat for bed bugs.