Bed Bug Knowledge Library


Below is a list of important Bed Bug PDF documents.


HowToStopAndGetRidOfBedbugs.pdf
LittleBedbugTerminatorHandbook.pdf
Stop-Bed-Bugs-Safely.pdf
UltimateCollectionOfTipsForWipingOutBedbugs.pdf
bed-bug-fact-sheet.pdf
bed-bug-guide.pdf
bed-bug-how-to-get-rid-of-them.pdf
bed-bug-unwanted-pests.pdf
bed-bugs-stanford.pdf
georgia-division-health-bed-bug-handbook.pdf
os-bed-bug-facts.pdf
psu-bed-bugs-info.pdf
uk-bed-bug-report.pdf


Bed bugs are small, brownish, flattened insects that feed solely on the blood of animals. The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is the species most adapted to living with humans. It has done so since ancient times. Bed bugs are mentioned in medieval European texts and in classical Greek writings back to the time of Aristotle. Other bed bug species prefer to feed on wild hosts, especially bats and birds.

Where do bed bugs occur?
Bedbug DatabaseBed bugs and their relatives occur nearly worldwide. Bed bugs became relatively scarce during the latter part of the 20th century, but their populations have resurged in recent years, particularly throughout parts of North America, Europe, and Australia. They are most abundant in rooms where people sleep, and they generally hide nearest the bed or other furniture used for sleeping. Bed bugs are most active in the middle of the night, but when hungry, they will venture out during the day to seek a host. Their flattened bodies allow them to conceal themselves in cracks and crevices around the room and within furniture. Favored hiding sites include the bed frame, mattress and box spring. Clutter around the room offers additional sites for these bugs to hide, and increases the difficulty in eliminating bed bugs once they have become established.

BedbugAdult bed bugs are about 3/16-inch long and reddish brown, with oval, flattened bodies. They are sometimes mistaken for ticks or cockroaches. The immatures (nymphs) resemble the adults, but are smaller and lighter in color.Bed bugs do not fly, but can move rapidly over floors, walls, ceilings and other surfaces. Female bed bugs lay their eggs in secluded areas, depositing 1, 2 or more eggs per day and hundreds during a lifetime. The eggs are tiny, whitish, and hard to see on most surfaces without magnification (individual eggs are about the size of a dust speck). When first laid, the eggs are sticky, causing them to adhere to surfaces. Newly hatched nymphs are straw-colored and no bigger than a pinhead. As they grow, they molt (shed their skin) five times before reaching maturity. A blood meal is needed between each successive molt. Under favorable conditions (70-80°F), the bugs can complete development in as little as a month, producing three or more generations per year. Cooler temperatures or limited access to blood extends the development time. Bed bugs are resilient. Nymphs can survive months without feeding and the adults for more than a year. Infestations therefore are unlikely to diminish by leaving premises unoccupied. Although C. lectularius prefers feeding on humans, it will also bite other warm-blooded animals, including dogs, cats, birds and rodents.

Bedbug DatabaseBed bugs are small, flat, oval, wingless insects (about one-fifth of an inch) that crawl at a steady rate and are visible to the naked eye. Similar to mosquitoes, Bed bugs bite humans to feed on blood; however, unlike mosquitoes, they do not transmit disease. Hardy creatures that can live for up to 18 months without feeding, Bed bugs can withstand extreme temperature changes. Being nocturnal insects, their daytime hiding places include crevices, bed frames, mattresses and box springs, behind electrical outlet covers and picture frames, inside drawers of furniture, within pleats of curtains, in clothes discarded on the floor, and in other spaces where they are not easily detected. They are called Bed bugs because they thrive best in beds where people sleep. A rash or bite mark with accompanying blood spots on linens are typically the first signs of a Bed bug presence.

Bedbug Life Cyclical Stage If the above description fits the bug you found, then you do in fact have bed bugs.  But first you need to inform yourself of the various bed bug sprays out there and how to use bed bug repellents, is your next step.

Bed bugs are a growing, worldwide problem emanating from increased global travel and decreased use of pesticides. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels, college residences, hospitals, and virtually all other types of housing throughout the United States. Given the nearly 30,000 students and international summer visitors who live in Stanford University’s residences each year, we are fortunate to have experienced very few Bed bug cases since the issue resurfaced on a large scale in the United States a few years ago. Our peer Ivy League and University of California schools have also reported cases of Bed bugs.

BedbugsHere is some advice for you to avoid having bed bug bites.  First, by covering up your body, you are helping to prevent bed bug bites.  Bed bugs do not like to burrow under clothing.  You may be able to avoid bed bug bites by wearing pajamas that cover up as much of your skin as possible.  Secondly, it is important to note that if you are using insect repellents to keep bed bugs out, this will not help.  Third, some have found that using mosquito netting that has been impregnated with permethrin, a pesticide, may help to protect you against bed bug bites while you are sleeping.

Bed bug DatabaseBed bugs had been kept under control in most industrial nations in the last century with the development of appropriate pesticides. However, as people become more global in their travels and insects of all caliber become more resistant to chemical treatments, bed bug infestations have become common in some of the finest hotels and homes in the world. The good news is that bed bugs do not transmit diseases. They do, however, leave nasty welts or blisters where they bite, which later become red and itchy.

Bed bugIn the case of apartments and/or adjoining homes, bed bugs are able to travel by way of water pipes, wall voids, gutters and wiring. Rodents, birds, and bats can serve as alternative hosts. If a nearby habitat (see below) is the source of the insect, then it should be carefully moved away from the building and the bed bugs’ entryway should be blocked. Otherwise, bed bugs have likely been introduced accidentally or are traveling between homes. Transmission of disease by bed bugs is highly unlikely, though they can harbor pathogens in their bodies. Their medical significance is mainly limited to the itching and inflammation from their bites, which can be addressed with antihistamines and corticosteroids to reduce allergic reactions and antiseptic or antibiotic ointments to prevent infection. Detecting bed bugs may be as easy as realizing you are waking up with sore spots or itchy welts, often in a line. This being said, the offending insect can rarely be identified solely by the appearance of the bites, since they can resemble bites caused by many other kinds of blood feeding insects, such as mosquitoes and fleas. Find the insects and identify them, either using the description above or by taking a specimen to an entomologist.

 

 

How dangerous are bed bugs to humans?

Most bed bugs feed on their hosts while they are asleep. The host supplies them with blood in a painless way, never knowing it is happening. While feeding they inject a small amount of saliva into the host's skin. The more they feed on one particular host, say a human, over a period of several weeks, the more sensitized that human becomes to their saliva. Until eventually the host develops a mild to intense allergic response.

People who have become sensitive to bed bug bites - their saliva - have lesions similar to mosquito or flea bites. Most humans will think they have been bitten by some insect, such as a mosquito, and never realize who the true culprit was. 

The most active time for a bed bug is about one hour before sunrise - the peak time for feeding. However, they will try to feed at any time of day or night if they are hungry enough, and if the opportunity is there. They prefer nighttime and hate sunlight. 

Bed bug DatabaseThey will reach their host either by crawling straight towards them, or climbing a wall and then across the ceiling until they feel a heat wave - when they jump down onto their host. The bug is attracted to the host by both its warmth and the presence of C02(carbon dioxide). 

It pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes. One tube injects saliva which contains anesthetics, so that the host feels nothing, and anticoagulants, so that the blood flows out freely. The other tube sucks the blood in. 

Feeding takes about five minutes, after which the bug returns to its hiding place. Bites are not noticeable by the host until at least a few minutes or some hours afterwards. Hosts, for example humans, will be aware of a bite after scratching it. Often bites may not be noticeable for several days.

Bed bugs will feed every five to ten days. They can, however, last for several months without feeding. If there is no food around they can become dormant for over a year. A well fed bed bug has a lifespan of about six to nine months.

How do bed bugs reproduce?

Bed bugBed bugs reproduce by traumatic insemination, also known as hypodermic insemination. The males have hypodermic genitalia which pierce the females anywhere on their abomen and ejaculate sperm into the body cavity. The sperm diffuse through the insides and reach the ovaries, resulting in fertilization. 

The female bed bug lays approximately 5 eggs in one day and about 500 during her lifetime. Eggs are about 1 mm long and are visible to the naked eye. They have a milky-white tinge. 

The eggs take about two weeks to hatch. The nymphs (baby bed bugs) start feeding as soon as they hatch, and pass through five molting stages before reaching maturity. During each molting stage they need to feed once. It takes about five weeks to reach maturity at a room-temperature environment. 

Bed bugs can only reproduce when they have reached maturity.

What happens when I get bitten?

Bed bug DatabaseWhen you are bitten a raised red bump of flat welt (also called a papule or a wheal) will appear, often accompanied by very intense itching. The anesthetic contained in the bed bugs saliva causes an allergic reaction which results in the red bumps. They look very similar to mosquito bites, but last a lot longer. Signs and symptoms of bug bites will only affect the surface of the skin. 

Bites can sometimes take up to nine days to become visible. Unlike flea bites, bed bug bites do not usually have a red dot in the center.

Bed bugs, like fleas, tend to bite in rows. There are likely to be two or three bites all in a row. This is probably because the bed bug is disturbed while feeding, and then comes back about half an inch further down for its next bite; or perhaps it had been trying to find a good vein, and needed several attempts. 

About 50% of people who are bitten show no symptoms at all and do not know it happened. This makes it more difficult to prevent or identify potential infestations. Some individuals, however, may become ill and nauseous. It is possible get skin infections and scars from scratching the bites.

When people know they have an infestation of bed bugs in their house they tend to become alarmed. Research, however, indicates that bed bugs do not transmit disease, even though they do bite and take blood. Infections will occur as a result of scratching, and not from a pathogen passed on from the bug. 

Very rarely, some people may have an anaphylactic reaction to bed bug bites. It is possible to have an asthmatic reaction when they shed skin as they grow and die; but cases are very rare.

Mechanical Control

Trap and remove host animals and nests. Scrub infested surfaces with a stiff brush to dislodge eggs, then vacuum. If possible, dismantle bed frame, turn over furniture and remove shelves from desks and bureaus to look for hiding insects, vacuuming to remove insects from crevices.

Bed bug

Bed bug Standford

Bed bug Unwanted Pests

Bed bug Facts

PSU Bed bug Info

Stop Bed bug Safely

UK Bed bug Report

Biology

There are 6 recognized subfamilies of Cimicidae and up to 23 genera, while the number of species has been given as anywhere from 75 to 108.[citation needed] The common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.

Adult bedbugs are reddish-brown, flattened, oval, and wingless. Bedbugs have microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4–5 mm in length and 1.5–3 mm wide. Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and become browner as they moult and reach maturity.

Bedbugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, attacks, and reproduction.

The life span of bedbugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Predators

Natural enemies of bedbugs include the masked hunter (AKA "masked bedbug hunter"), cockroaches, ants, spiders, mites, and centipedes. The Pharaoh ant's (Monomorium pharaonis) venom is lethal to bedbugs. Rodents eat bedbugs, but bats do not, due to their distaste for the bedbug alarm pheromone, which is released when they are attacked. Biological control is not very practical for eliminating bedbugs from human dwellings.

Disease transmission

Bed Bug DatabaseBed bugs would seem to have all the prerequisites for passing diseases from one host to another, and at least twenty-seven known pathogens (some estimates are as high as forty-one) are capable of living inside a bed bug or on its mouthparts, yet there are no known cases of such transmission. Extensive laboratory testing indicates that bed bugs are unlikely to pass disease from one person to another.

Other effects on health

The salivary fluid injected by bed bugs can cause skin to become irritated and inflamed, although individuals can differ in their sensitivity. A few cases of bullous eruptions have been reportedAnaphylactoid reactions from the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins are observed and the saliva of the bedbugs may cause anaphylactic shock, though rarely. In rare cases of intense and neglected infestation, sustained feeding by bedbugs may lead to anemia. Secondary bacterial infection (i.e., infections from scratching itchy skin too much) are possible. Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are numerous.

Traditional control methods

Plants traditionally used as bedbug repellents include black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), Pseudarthna hookeri, and Laggera alata (Chinese yángmáo cǎo | 羊毛草), though information about their effectiveness is lacking. Eucalyptus saligna oil was reported by some Zairean researchers to kill bedbugs, among other insects.

In the 18th century, turpentine was used in combination with henna (Lawsonia inermis, aka camphire) flowers and alcohol, as an insecticide that also reputedly killed bedbug eggs.

Bed Bug DatabaseOther items that were believed to kill bedbugs in the early 19th century include "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably a kind of cockchafer), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh), tobacco, "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. turpentine), wild mint (Mentha arvensis), narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale), Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry), Robert Geranium (Geranium robertianum), bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.), "herb and seeds of Cannabis", "Opulus" berries (possibly a kind of maple, or European cranberrybush), masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others."[56] In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended

The use of black pepper is attested in George Orwell's 1933 non-fiction book Down and Out in Paris and London.

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including "plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth (DE) or Kieselguhr" Of these, Diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a non-toxic residual pesticide for bedbug abatement. When it attaches to a bedbug, it abrades the waxy cuticle that covers its exosekeleton, causing it to die of dehydration[citation needed]. Insects exposed to diatomaceous earth may, however, take several days to die.

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning, in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.

Reproduction

Bed Bug Database All bedbugs mate via traumatic insemination. Instead of inserting their genitalia into the female's reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, males instead pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity.

The "bedbug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bedbug is disturbed, for example, during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated that the alarm pheromone is also released by male bedbugs to repel other males who attempt to mate with them.

C. lectularius and C. hemipterus will mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, 1 egg out of 479 was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, C. hemipterus x lectularius

Life stages

Bedbugs will shed their skins through a molting process (ecdysis) throughout multiple stages of their lives. The discarded outer-shells look as clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bedbugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults.

Traditional control methods

Plants traditionally used as bedbug repellents include black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), Pseudarthna hookeri, and Laggera alata, though information about their effectiveness is lacking. Eucalyptus saligna oil was reported by some Zairean researchers to kill bedbugs, among other insects.

Bed Bug DatabaseIn the 18th century, turpentine was used in combination with henna (Lawsonia inermis, aka camphire) flowers and alcohol, as an insecticide that also reputedly killed bedbug eggs.

Other items that were believed to kill bedbugs in the early 19th century include "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably a kind of cockchafer), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh), tobacco, "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. turpentine), wild mint (Mentha arvensis), narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale), Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry), Robert Geranium (Geranium robertianum), bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.), "herb and seeds of Cannabis", "Opulus" berries (possibly a kind of maple, or European cranberrybush), masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others". In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended.

The use of black pepper is attested in George Orwell's 1933 non-fiction book Down and Out in Paris and London.

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including "plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth (DE) or Kieselguhr" Of these, Diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a non-toxic residual pesticide for bedbug abatement. When it attaches to a bedbug, it abrades the waxy cuticle that covers its exosekeleton, causing it to die of dehydration[citation needed]. Insects exposed to diatomaceous earth may, however, take several days to die.

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning, in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.

Possible Infested Areas

Nearly anywhere where there are cracks or crevices can be a hiding place for the insect and its eggs.:

1. beds, spring boxes, bed frames, headboards

  • 2. seams and fabric folds of beds and sofas
  • 3. under the edge of wall-to-wall carpeting (particularly behind beds and furniture)
  • 4. cracks in and under wood molding and baseboards
  • 5. ceiling-wall junctures
  • 6. behind wall-mounted picture frames and mirrors
  • 7. under loose wallpaper
  • 8. clothing and clutter stored in closets and under beds
  • 9. inside switch plates, electrical outlets, clocks, phones, televisions and smoke detectors
  • 10. Luggage (which may have been the original vector of infestation)
  • 11. Roosting or nesting areas (if wild animals are a suspected vector)

In hotels and motels, headboards are often the first place with which bed bugs become established, particularly behind the headboards. Removal and inspection may be warranted.

If infestation of an item is too severe, disposal of the item at the dump should be done. Such items should never be given away to anyone.

Pesticides

Bed Bug DatabaseWith the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s, bedbugs mostly disappeared from the developed world in the mid-twentieth century, though infestations remained common in many other parts of the world. Rebounding populations present a challenge because of developed resistance to various pesticides including DDT, and organophosphates DDT was seen to make bedbugs more active in studies done in Africa.

Professionals treat using a variety of low-odor sprays, liquids, dusts and aerosols. Some insecticide formulations include:

  • 1. Botanical insecticide pyrethrin.
  • 2. Synthetic pyrethroid products, such as cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin.
  • 3. Pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr.

Because some bed bug populations have developed a resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, there is growing interest in both synthetic pyrethroid and pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr.

Repellent pesticides as space applications (ie. Pyrethrum, pyrethroids - known as “bug bombs”) are nearly not at all effective since most bugs can escape to cracks and crevices to wait until the airborn pesticide has broken down.

Eggs are resistant to pesticides, and so re-treatment after 10 to 14 days is usually done.

Non-pesticide Applications

Bed Bug DatabaseThere are non-pesticide applications:

  • Rubbing alcohol in a spray bottle
  • Soapy water solution
  • Disinfectant, e.g. Lysol to treat harborages

Such methods are effective to some extent but usually require repeated treatments along with careful re-inspections.

There is also an insect growth regulator hydroprene (Gentrol) which causes sterility in adults, thereby diminishing the numbers of the possible next generation of bed bugs.

 

Baits

Baits designed to control ants and cockroaches are ineffective, since bed bugs are lured by carbon dioxide and kairomones.

Bug Repellants

Insect repellents, such as those used for ticks and mosquitoes, do not appear to be effective to avoid bites while sleeping.

Lights

Though bed bugs have an aversion to sunlight, leaving the lights on is not likely to deter hungry bugs.

Controlled atmospheres

Experiments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide have succeeded in killing bedbugs within 24 hours. Higher concentrations kill faster. Exposure to nearly-pure nitrogen atmospheres appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.

Mattress Sanitization

Bed Bug DatabaseInfected mattresses are often handled in the following ways:

  • Vacuumed, regularly and thoroughly
  • Steamed with a steam-cleaner
  • Treated with a registered pesticide
  • Sprayed with rubbing alcohol
  • Cleaned with upholstery cleaner
  • Dusted with Drione dust or NIC 325
  • Fumigated with Vikane or heat
  • Sealed
  • Replaced with a new mattress

Sealing can be done with a suspect mattress (or box spring) by wrapping it in a disposable plastic sheeting, sealing all the seams and putting it on a bed. Encasing mattress and box springs in impermeable bed-bug bite-proof encasements after a treatment for an infestation is an alternative treatment which works better and is more comfortable whereas wrapping bedding in plastic causes sweating.

Once a bed is disinfected and isolated, care should be taken to avoid reinfesting the bed by not sleeping or resting on the bed in clothing that has been potentially contaminated. Preventing the bed from touching the walls, as well as preventing bedding from draping the floor, or not allowing objects to lean against the bed frame will help to stop bedbugs from being reintroduced onto the bed.

There are various bed bug Non-pesticide Applications which are sometimes used to disinfect mattresses.

If the infestation is too severe, the mattress or box spring may have to be disposed of. The items should not be given away, or left on the curb, as this could further spread bed bugs to other homes.

Heat

Bedbugs show strong resistance to dessication, surviving low humidity and a 35–40°C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones. The thermal death point for the common bedbug (C. lectularius) is high: 45 °C (113 °F), and all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46 °C (115 °F).[15] However, in heating buildings, to ensure that no bedbugs survive in cooler locations, the US Department of Defense recommends using a temperature of at least 49 °C (120 °F), at 20-30% relative humidity, for at least 20 minutes.

Bed Bug DatabaseThe use of a fabric steamer on the infestations will kill the eggs and the bugs instantly. Since steam will penetrate the pores of a mattress, it can reach deep into the corners of beds.[citation needed] Individual items can be treated with heat. Oven-like devices have been designed specifically for this purpose and are available on the market.[citation needed] Clothing can be sanitized by a 120 °F (49 °C) laundry dryer.

Enclosing a mattress in a black plastic bag and placing it in the sun on a hot day is not considered effective, because temperatures won't necessarily be high enough everywhere.

Heat can also be used to drive bed bugs out of cracks and crevices. By using a blow dryer, on a low setting, hot air can be blown into an invested area that is otherwise inaccessible to an object such as a knife. When live bugs emerge, they can be sucked up with a vacuum cleaner or crushed with a paper towel. Great care should be taken when using the heat on any object or surface that may melt or be destroyed from the heat.

Cold

Moderate low temperatures can extend bedbug life; very low temperatures can be lethal. Below 16.1 °C (61 °F), adults enter semi-hibernation and can survive longer.[72] Bedbugs can survive for at least five days at −10 °C (14 °F) but will die after 15 minutes of exposure to −32 °C (−25.6 °F)[15] Storing infested items below −19 °C (0 °F) for at least four days will kill them.[20] Carbon dioxide deployed in the form of "snow" may kill bedbugs by rapid freezing

Barrier strategy

It is possible to create a temporary barrier around furniture that will help prevent bedbugs from crawling onto it. A successful barrier assumes the entire piece of furniture has been disinfected of all bedbugs beforehand. Nevertheless although bedbugs cannot fly, they have been observed falling from ceilings.

Bedbugs cannot cross petroleum jelly and have difficulty climbing metal or glass, hence furniture legs can be put in a tin can, the bottom of which is thickly coated with petroleum jelly. Furniture can also be isolated by applying a layer of duct tape that has been curled lengthwise over on itself with the sticky side out. This creates a sticky barrier that will prevent bedbugs from crawling up. Double-sided duct tape can also be used.

Vermin and pets may complicate a barrier strategy.

Traps

Bed Bugs TrapTraps have been devised using a combination of heat, carbon dioxide and kairomones to attract bedbugs into a container from which they cannot escape.

Glue traps placed in strategic areas around the home, sometimes used in conjunction with heating pads or balloons filled with exhaled breath offering a carbon dioxide source, may be used to trap and thus detect bedbugs. However, bedbugs can simply walk across the sticky surface of tape, which, while slowing them down, will not stop them from crossing.

Some traps placed around furniture legs use a combination of petroleum jelly and slippery surfaces to catch bedbugs.

Suddenly turning on a light or torch may startle bugs and ease their catching.

Vacuuming

Bed Bug DatabaseVacuuming floors of a suspected room aids in the physical removal of bed bugs, as well as the use of a strong vacuum's suction-wand when used to target places where bed bugs may dwell. Dwelling places often vacuumed during treatment can include the seams of mattresses and box springs, perimeters of carpets, baseboards, and cracks and crevices. A blow dryer can be used in conjunction with a vacuum cleaner, by using the blow dryer to drive bugs out of crevice and immediately vacuuming the live bugs up.

After any sort of vacuuming up of live bugs, the entire vacuum bag must be removed, sealed in a trash bag and then discarded.

A single vacuuming rarely removes all bugs and eggs.

Regular vacuuming can reduce the recurrence of bed bugs.

Prevention

Bed Bug BitesAn educated inspection by tenants, owners and housekeeping staff, is the best way to catch infestations early.

Bed bugs are often brought unwittingly into homes via luggage, furnishings or personal items. While traveling, concerned travelers may wish to get into the habit of checking their beds for any signs of bed bugs. Ideally, luggage should be elevated off the floor on a luggage stand, tabletop or some other hard surface. Luggage should be thoroughly examined before re-entering any home.

In high people-turnover situations (hotels, apartments, etc), management will often elect to use bed frames which have a smooth surface, such as metal. Not only does smoothness of metal make the bed harder for bed bugs to climb, it also makes the detection and removal of both bed bugs and eggs much easier.

Curbside items should be avoided, and secondhand articles, such as clothing or furniture, should be carefully examined and cleaned before being brought into any building.

If animals are/were a possible vector, entry or re-entry by the animals into the building should be made impossible.

Even once treatments have been employed, bed bug infestation might return, necessitating daily monitoring. Keeping down clutter and regular vacuuming of previously infested areas is often done as prevention of infestation recurrence.

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